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HUMAINE Emotion Annotation and Representation Language (EARL): Specification

Version 0.4.0, 30 June 2006



Table of Contents




Attributes common to all emotion elements

Attributes shared by all EARL emotion elements (simple or complex). They cover: an optional, unique identifier for each emotion element; the scope of the annotation (i.e., what it refers to); and its modality. Scope is meaningful on highest-level emotion elements only, not on emotion elements embedded in a complex emotion.

Attribute

Type

Use

Documentation

id

xs:ID

optional

unique identifier of the emotion.tag

xlink:href

xs:string

optional

the scope of the emotion element, as a reference (e.g. an XML element ID in the same or another document, or a file name)

start

xs:float

optional

the scope of the emotion element in terms of time – the time where the emotion starts. Usually specified in seconds from the start of the current clip.

end

xs:float

optional

the time where the emotion finishes.

modality

modalityType, i.e. one of: face, voice, body, biosignal, text

optional

indicates the modality through which the emotion is expressed (when labelling) or through which the emotion is to be expressed (when generating).

Samples Element <samples>

The sampling mechanism specifies a list of values taking into account a rate (number of samples per second)

Attribute

Type

Use

Documentation

rate

xs:float

optional

number of samples per second

values

xs:string

optional

it specifies on what the sampling mechanism is applied. For example, dimensions or intensity or regulation, etc.


Simple Emotion Element <emotion>

A “simple” (atomic) emotion can be described in terms of categories, dimensions and/or appraisals. The specification in terms of a category can be complemented by an optional intensity. It can enclose an optional list of <samples> elements. This list of samples elements can be optionally followed by arbitrary XML structures, in particular by plain text. If such a sub-structure (apart from <samples> elements) is present, then this enclosed structure is the scope of the emotion; if the <emotion> element is empty or contains only <samples> elements and white space, then a scope for the emotion must be specified using either the xlink:href reference or start and end times.

Attribute

Type

Use

Documentation

category

categoryType

optional

describe an emotional state in terms of an emotion category. See below for details on the definition of valid category values.

intensity

xsd:float

optional

specifies the intensity of the emotion, between 0 and 1.

[attributes denoting emotion dimensions]

xs:float

optional

describe an emotional state in terms of  emotion dimensions. See below for details on the definition of valid dimension attributes. Valid values for dimensions typically range from –1 to 1, even though users may decide to use only the values from 0 to 1 if they consider a dimension to be unipolar rather than bipolar.

[attributes denoting appraisals]

xs:float

optional

describe an emotional state in terms of the appraisals bringing about the emotion. See below for details on the definition of valid appraisal attributes. Valid values for appraisals typically range from –1 to 1, even though users may decide to use only the values from 0 to 1 if they consider an appraisal scale to be unipolar rather than bipolar.

probability

xs:float

optional

the probability that the emotion specification is adequate. In annotation, this corresponds to labeller confidence / classification probability; in generation, to the probability of the state being realised.

[attributes denotin regulation]

simulate
suppress
amplify
attenuate

xs:float

optional

indicates that the emotion is not expressed in the same way as it is perceived; some sort of control is excerced by the person, to fulfil some socially motivated expression target.

Sub-elements

Element

Type

Use

Minimum

Maximum

Documentation

samples

sampleType

optional

0

unbounded

 


<emotion> Examples

  • Annotating a text:
 <emotion category="pleasure">Hello!</emotion>
  • Annotating a photo of a face:
 <emotion xlink:href="face12.jpg" category="pleasure"/>
  • Annotating a time span:
 <emotion start="0.4" end="1.3" category="pleasure"/>
  • Emotion dimensions:
 <emotion xlink:href="face12.jpg" arousal="-0.2" valence="0.5" power="0.2"/>
  • Appraisals
 <emotion xlink:href="face12.jpg" suddenness="-0.8" intrinsic_pleasantness="0.7" goal_conduciveness="0.3" relevance_self_concerns="0.7" />
  • Combining labels:
 <emotion category="pleasure" intensity="0.9" simulate="0.6" modality="face" probability="0.5">Hello!</emotion>
  • Annotating time-varying signals (Feeltrace: arousal+valence):
 <emotion start="2" end="2.7">
    <samples value="arousal" rate="10">
        0  .1  .25  .4  .55  .6  .65  .66
    </samples>
    <samples value="valence" rate="10">
        0  -.1  -.2  -.25  -.3  -.4  -.4  -.45
    </samples>
 </emotion>

Complex Emotion Element <complex-emotion>

It describes an emotion which is complex in the sense that it is composed of several (>=2), atomic or complex, emotion descriptions. Still, it refers to a single "entity" (reference or start/end time). Only the top level <complex-emotion> element should have a ref or start/end attributes, to reflect the fact that they are jointly attached to a single entity. Typical cases are the co-occurence of two or more emotions, possibly varying in intensity, and regulation attempts, where one emotion may be masked by the simulation of another one.

 

Sub-elements

Element

Type

Use

Minimum

Maximum

Documentation

emotion

emotionType

optional

0

unbounded

 

complex-emotion

complexEmotionType

optional

0

unbounded

 


<complex-emotion> Examples

  • Ambiguity coded through probability:
 <complex-emotion xlink:href="face12.jpg">
    <emotion category="pleasure" probability="0.5">
    <emotion category="friendliness" probability="0.5">
 </complex-emotion>
  • Major/minor emotion coded through intensity:
 <complex-emotion xlink:href="face12.jpg">
    <emotion category="pleasure" intensity="0.7" />
    <emotion category="worry" intensity="0.5" />
 </complex-emotion>
  • A simulated emotion masking a suppressed one:
 <complex-emotion xlink:href="face12.jpg">
    <emotion category="pleasure" simulate="1.0" />
    <emotion category="worry" suppress="1.0" />
 </complex-emotion>
  • Different emotions in different modalities:
 <complex-emotion xlink:href="face12.jpg">
    <emotion category="pleasure" modality="face" />
    <emotion category="worry" modality="voice" />
 </complex-emotion>

 


EARL root element <earl>

When EARL annotation is used as a standalone document, the document root node <earl> is used. It groups <emotion> and <complex-emotion> elements, and refers to a namespace.

 

Sub-elements

Element

Type

Use

Minimum

Maximum

Documentation

emotion

emotionType

optional

0

unbounded

 

complex-emotion

complexEmotionType

optional

0

unbounded

 


<earl> Examples

  • A stand-off annotation of a speech synthesis markup (SSML) document:

The ssml document, doc123.ssml: (note that we need to add “id” attributes to SSML sentence tags to allow for cross-referencing)

<speak xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/10/synthesis" […]>
    <voice gender="female">
        <s id="s1">Why are you so angry today?</s>
    </voice>
    <voice gender="male">
        <s id="s2">I am not angry!!</s>
    </voice>
</speak>

The stand-off annotation document, doc123.earl:

<earl xmlns="http://emotion-research.net/earl/040/default"[…]>
    <emotion xlink:href="doc123.ssml#s1" category="empathy"/>
    <emotion xlink:href="doc123.ssml#s2" category="anger"/>
</earl>

 


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