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HUMAINE Emotion Annotation and Representation Language (EARL): Schema

Version 0.4.0, 30 June 2006


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EARL XML Schema

In the following, the full text of EARL schema files is listed. Naming conventions are proposed allowing for the consistent integration of schemas into EARL dialects.

B.1 The core schema defining the EARL structure

The core EARL schema, defining the overall structure of an EARL document, is named:

 

earl-base-<version-number>.xsd

The version number for this release is 0.4.0, so that the file below must be called

earl-base-0.4.0.xsd


<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!-- Emotion annotation and representation language -->
<!-- Version 0.2, by Myriam Lamolle, 13 October 2005 -->
<!-- Version 0.3, by Marc Schroeder, 27 October 2005 -->
<!-- Version 0.4, by Myriam Lamolle, 25 June 2006 -->

<xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"
elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified">

<xsd:import namespace="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" schemaLocation="http://www.loc.gov/standards/mets/xlink.xsd"/>

<!-- ********************************************** -->
<!-- EMOTION DEFINITION -->
<!-- ********************************************** -->
<!-- ######################### -->
<!-- REGULATION ATTRIBUTE GROUP DEFINITION -->
<xsd:attributeGroup name="regulationAttributeGroup">
<xsd:annotation>
<xsd:documentation>A number of regulation attributes to indicate attempts to suppress, amplify, attenuate or simulate the expression of an emotion</xsd:documentation>
</xsd:annotation>
<xsd:attribute name="suppress" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
<xsd:attribute name="simulate" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
<xsd:attribute name="amplify" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
<xsd:attribute name="attenuate" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
</xsd:attributeGroup>
<!-- ######################### -->
<!-- MODALITY TYPE DEFINITION -->
<xsd:simpleType name="modalityType">
<xsd:annotation>
<xsd:documentation>The modality type specifies the allowed values of emotion modality. It indicates through which the emotion is expressed (when labelling) or through which the emotion is to be expressed generating</xsd:documentation>
</xsd:annotation>
<xsd:restriction base="xsd:NMTOKEN">
<xsd:enumeration value="voice"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="text"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="face"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="body"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="biosignal"/>
</xsd:restriction>
</xsd:simpleType>
<!-- ########################################################### -->
<!-- START and END time ATTRIBUTE GROUP for complexEmotion and emotion -->
<xsd:attributeGroup name="emotionTimeAttributeGroup">
<xsd:annotation>
<xsd:documentation>This attribute group specifies the cmommon atttribute used by emotion and complex emotion. Start and end represent the start and the end time of emotion.</xsd:documentation>
</xsd:annotation>
<xsd:attribute name="start" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
<xsd:attribute name="end" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
</xsd:attributeGroup>
<!-- ######################### -->
<!-- SAMPLING DEFINITION -->
<xsd:simpleType name="listValueSampleType">
<xsd:annotation>
<xsd:documentation>We propose a sampling mechanism, assuming that points occur at fixed time intervals determined by a "sampling rate" (= the number of samples per second).</xsd:documentation>
</xsd:annotation>
<xsd:list itemType="xsd:decimal"/>
</xsd:simpleType>
<xsd:complexType name="sampleType">
<xsd:annotation>
<xsd:documentation>The sample type specifies the list of values corresponding to a sampling .</xsd:documentation>
</xsd:annotation>
<xsd:simpleContent>
<xsd:extension base="listValueSampleType">
<xsd:attribute name="rate" type="xsd:positiveInteger"/>
<xsd:attribute name="values" type="xsd:string"/>
</xsd:extension>
</xsd:simpleContent>
</xsd:complexType>
<!-- ############################# -->
<!-- EMOTION TYPE DEFINITION -->
<xsd:complexType name="emotionType" mixed="true">
<xsd:annotation>
<xsd:documentation>The emotion type contains different attributes to describe an emotion. An emotion have (or not) a sequence of sampling</xsd:documentation>
</xsd:annotation>
<xsd:sequence>
<xsd:element name="samples" type="sampleType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded" minOccurs="0">
<xsd:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax"/>
</xsd:choice>
</xsd:sequence>
<xsd:attribute name="id" type="xsd:ID" />
<xsd:attribute ref="xlink:href" use="optional"/>
<xsd:attribute name="modality" type="modalityType" use="optional"/>
<xsd:attributeGroup ref="emotionTimeAttributeGroup"/>
<xsd:attribute name="category" type="categoryType"/>
<xsd:attribute name="probability" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
<xsd:attributeGroup ref="dimensionAttributeGroup"/>
<xsd:attributeGroup ref="appraisalAttributeGroup"/>
<xsd:attributeGroup ref="regulationAttributeGroup"/>
<xsd:attribute name="intensity" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
</xsd:complexType>

<!-- ######################### -->
<!-- COMPLEX EMOTION DEFINITION -->
<xsd:complexType name="complexEmotionType" mixed="true">
<xsd:annotation>
<xsd:documentation>A complex emotion describes an emotion which is complex in the sense that is composed of several complex emotion descriptions. Still, it refers to a single "entity" (reference or start/end time). Only the tag "complex-emotion" element should have a ref or start/end attributes, to reflect the fact that they are joined single entity. Typical cases are the co-occurrence of two or more emotion, possibly varying in intensity; attempts, where on emotion may be masked by the simulation of another one; or anotation of different modalities.</xsd:documentation>
</xsd:annotation>
<xsd:choice minOccurs="2" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<xsd:element name="emotion" type="emotionType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<xsd:element name="complex-emotion" type="complexEmotionType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xsd:choice>
<xsd:attribute name="id" type="xsd:ID" />
<xsd:attribute ref="xlink:href" use="optional"/>
<xsd:attributeGroup ref="emotionTimeAttributeGroup"/>
<xsd:attribute name="modality" type="modalityType" use="optional"/>
</xsd:complexType>

<!-- ######################### -->
<!-- ######################### -->
<!-- element EMOTION -->
<xsd:element name="emotion" type="emotionType" />
<!-- element COMPLEX_EMOTION -->
<xsd:element name="complex-emotion" type="complexEmotionType" />

<!-- EARL type Definition -->
<xsd:complexType name="earlType" mixed="true">
<xsd:sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<xsd:element name="complex-emotion" type="complexEmotionType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<xsd:element name="emotion" type="emotionType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</xsd:sequence>
</xsd:complexType>
<!-- root element definition -->
<xsd:element name="earl" type="earlType"/>
</xsd:schema>


B.2 Schemas defining default sets of categories, dimensions or appraisals

B.2.1 Categories

The following Schema file defines the set of 48 emotion categories introduced in Section 7.1 so that these can be used as values of the “category” attribute of an <emotion> element. File naming conventions:

 

earl-categories-<domain>.xsd

As this is the default category set, the name of this file is:

earl-categories-default.xsd

Note that there is no version number in the name, i.e. the format of defining content is not expected to change between versions of EARL.


<xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">
<!-- CATEGORY TYPE DEFINITION -->
<xsd:simpleType name="categoryType">
<xsd:annotation>
<xsd:documentation>
A category set consisting of 27 everyday emotion words, distilled
from 55 words list of 2004 summer school. In order to be able to
annotate explicitly the absence of an emotion, we add the category
"neutral".
</xsd:documentation>
</xsd:annotation>
<xsd:restriction base="xsd:NMTOKEN">
<!-- Negative and forceful -->
<xsd:enumeration value="anger"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="annoyance"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="contempt"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="disgust"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="irritation"/>
<!-- Negative and not in control -->
<xsd:enumeration value="anxiety"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="embarrassment"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="fear"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="helplessness"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="powerlessness"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="worry"/>
<!-- Negative thoughts -->
<xsd:enumeration value="doubt"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="envy"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="frustration"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="guilt"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="shame"/>
<!-- Negative and passive -->
<xsd:enumeration value="boredom"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="despair"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="disappointment"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="hurt"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="sadness"/>
<!-- Agitation -->
<xsd:enumeration value="shock"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="stress"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="tension"/>
<!-- Positive and lively -->
<xsd:enumeration value="amusement"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="delight"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="elation"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="excitement"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="happiness"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="joy"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="pleasure"/>
<!-- Caring -->
<xsd:enumeration value="affection"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="empathy"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="friendliness"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="love"/>
<!-- Positive thoughts -->
<xsd:enumeration value="courage"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="hope"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="pride"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="satisfaction"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="trust"/>
<!-- Quiet positive -->
<xsd:enumeration value="calm"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="content"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="relaxed"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="relieved"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="serene"/>
<!-- Reactive -->
<xsd:enumeration value="interest"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="politeness"/>
<xsd:enumeration value="surprise"/>
</xsd:restriction>
</xsd:simpleType>
</xsd:schema>

B.2.2 Dimensions

The following Schema file defines the set of 3 emotion dimensions introduced in Section 7.2 so that these can be used as attributes representing emotion dimensions in an <emotion> element. File naming conventions:

 

earl-dimensions-<domain>.xsd

As this is the default set of emotion dimensions, the name of this file is:

earl-dimensions-default.xsd

Note that there is no version number in the name, i.e. the format of defining content is not expected to change between versions of EARL.

 

<xsd:schema
xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">
  <!-- ###################################  -->
  <!-- DIMENSION ATTRIBUTE GROUP DEFINITION -->
  <xsd:attributeGroup name="dimensionAttributeGroup">
    <xsd:annotation>
    <xsd:documentation>
      Emotional dimensions: naming conventions vary. We suggest the
      following names, for reasons of clarity, limited ambiguity and wide-spread use
    </xsd:documentation>
    </xsd:annotation>
    <xsd:attribute name="arousal" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
    <xsd:attribute name="valence" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
    <xsd:attribute name="power" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
  </xsd:attributeGroup>
</xsd:schema>

B.2.3 Appraisals

The following Schema file defines the set of appraisals introduced in Section 7.3 so that these can be used as attributes representing appraisals in an <emotion> element. File naming conventions:

earl-appraisals-<domain>.xsd

As this is the default appraisal set, the name of this file is:

earl-appraisals-default.xsd

Note that there is no version number in the name, i.e. the format of defining content is not expected to change between versions of EARL.

 

<xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">
  <!-- APPRAISALS TYPE DEFINITION                       -->
 <xsd:attributeGroup name="appraisalAttributeGroup">
<xsd:annotation>
  <xsd:documentation>The appraisal type specifies the allowed values
of appraisal emotion. The following list is flattened representation which we
have tentatively formulated based on Klaus Scherer</xsd:documentation>
</xsd:annotation>
   <xsd:attribute name="suddenness" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
   <xsd:attribute name="familiarity" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
   <xsd:attribute name="predictability" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
   <xsd:attribute name="intrinsic_pleasantness" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
   <xsd:attribute name="relevance_self_concerns" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
   <xsd:attribute name="relevance_relationship_concerns" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
   <xsd:attribute name="relevance_social_order_concerns" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
   <xsd:attribute name="goal_outcome_probability" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
   <xsd:attribute name="consonant_with_expectation" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
   <xsd:attribute name="goal_conduciveness" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
   <xsd:attribute name="goal_urgency" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
   <xsd:attribute name="cause_agent_self" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
   <xsd:attribute name="cause_agent_other" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
   <xsd:attribute name="cause_motive_intentional" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
   <xsd:attribute name="event_controllability" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
   <xsd:attribute name="agent_power" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
   <xsd:attribute name="goal_adjustment_possible" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
   <xsd:attribute name="standards_compatibility_external" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
   <xsd:attribute name="standards_compatibility_internal" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
 </xsd:attributeGroup>
</xsd:schema>

B.3 Schema defining the default EARL dialect by binding together the EARL structure and the three default sets of content concepts

As depicted in Figure 1, a concrete EARL dialect is defined by combining the base EARL schema, defining the EARL structure, with content specifications for categories, dimensions and appraisals.

Naming conventions:

File name: earl-<domain>-<version>.xsd

Namespace: http://emotion-research.net/earl/<version-without-dots>/<domain>

Consequently, the default EARL dialect for version 0.4.0 is called:

File name: earl-default-0.4.0.xsd

Namespace: http://emotion-research.net/earl/040/default

The following Schema file, earl-default-0.4.0.xsd, defines the default EARL dialect in this sense.

<xsd:schema  targetNamespace="http://emotion-research.net/earl/040/default"
            xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">
  <xsd:include schemaLocation="earl-base-0.4.0.xsd"/>
  <xsd:include schemaLocation="earl-categories-default.xsd"/>
  <xsd:include schemaLocation="earl-dimensions-default.xsd"/>
  <xsd:include schemaLocation="earl-appraisals-default.xsd"/>
</xsd:schema>

B.4 Defining other EARL dialects

B.4.1 Defining new category sets

For each new set of categories to be used, a category definition file earl-categories-<domain>.xsd must be created. Here are some examples.

  • earl-categories-none.xsd – the empty set, in case no categories are to be used.
<xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">
  <!-- CATEGORY TYPE DEFINITION -->
  <xsd:simpleType  name="categoryType">
    <xsd:annotation>
      <xsd:documentation>no categories</xsd:documentation>
    </xsd:annotation>
    <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string">
        <xsd:enumeration value=""/>
    </xsd:restriction>
  </xsd:simpleType>
</xsd:schema>
  • earl-categories-aibo.xsd – an application-specific set of eleven emotion categories
<xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">
  <!-- CATEGORY TYPE DEFINITION -->
  <xsd:simpleType  name="categoryType">
    <xsd:annotation>
      <xsd:documentation>
       A category set consisting of 10 emotion classes (plus neutral)
        as used in the annotation of the AIBO database, described in:
        Batliner et al. (2004). "You stupid tin box" - Children interacting
        with the AIBO robot. LREC 2004, pp.171-174.
      </xsd:documentation>
    </xsd:annotation>
    <xsd:restriction base="xsd:NMTOKEN">
      <xsd:enumeration value="joyful"/>
      <xsd:enumeration value="surprised"/>
      <xsd:enumeration value="neutral"/>
      <xsd:enumeration value="emphatic"/>
      <xsd:enumeration value="helpless"/>
      <xsd:enumeration value="touchy"/>
      <xsd:enumeration value="angry"/>
      <xsd:enumeration value="motherese"/>
      <xsd:enumeration value="bored"/>
      <xsd:enumeration value="reprimanding"/>
      <xsd:enumeration value="rest"/>
    </xsd:restriction>
  </xsd:simpleType>
</xsd:schema>

B.4.2 Defining new sets of emotion dimensions

For each new set of emotion dimensions to be used, a dimension definition file earl-dimensions-<domain>.xsd must be created. Here are some examples.

  • earl-dimensions-none.xsd – the empty set, in case no dimensions are to be used.

 

<xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">
        <!-- ###################################  -->
        <!-- DIMENSION ATTRIBUTE GROUP DEFINITION -->
        <xsd:attributeGroup name="dimensionAttributeGroup">
               <xsd:annotation>
                        <xsd:documentation>no emotion dimensions
                        </xsd:documentation>
                </xsd:annotation>
        </xsd:attributeGroup>
</xsd:schema>

  • earl-dimensions-aibo.xsd – two application-specific emotion dimensions.
 <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">
  <!-- ###################################   -->
  <!-- DIMENSION ATTRIBUTE GROUP DEFINITION  -->
 <xsd:attributeGroup name="dimensionAttributeGroup">
  <xsd:annotation>   
<xsd:documentation>       
Two dimensions as found in an analysis of the AIBO database,
       described in:
       Batliner et al. (2005). Private Emotions vs. Social Interaction -
       towards New Dimensions in Research on Emotion.
       Proc. Workshop on Adapting the Interaction Style to Affective
       Factors, User Modelling 2005
   </xsd:documentation>
   </xsd:annotation>
   <xsd:attribute name="valence" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
   <xsd:attribute name="interaction" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
</xsd:attributeGroup>
</xsd:schema>

B.4.3 Defining new appraisal sets

For each new set of appraisals to be used, an appraisal definition file earl-appraisals-<domain>.xsd must be created. Here are some examples.

  • earl-appraisals-none.xsd – the empty set, in case no appraisals are to be used.

 

<xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">
        <!-- ###################################  -->
        <!-- DIMENSION ATTRIBUTE GROUP DEFINITION  -->
        <xsd:attributeGroup name="appraisalAttributeGroup">
           <xsd:annotation>
                <xsd:documentation>no appraisals</xsd:documentation>
           </xsd:annotation>
        </xsd:attributeGroup>
</xsd:schema>
  • earl-appraisals-pleasantcontrol.xsd – a set of just two appraisals, pleasantness and control.
<xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">
  <!-- APPRAISALS TYPE DEFINITION                       -->
 <xsd:attributeGroup name="appraisalAttributeGroup">
  <xsd:annotation>
        <xsd:documentation>Two appraisals, pleasantness and control
        </xsd:documentation>
</xsd:annotation>
   <xsd:attribute name="pleasantness" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
   <xsd:attribute name="control" type="xsd:float" use="optional"/>
 </xsd:attributeGroup>
</xsd:schema>

B.4.4 Defining new EARL dialects

A new EARL dialect is created by combining a set of categories, a set of dimensions and a set of appraisals with the base EARL structure. This is done in a simple file
earl-<domain>-version.xsd
defining namespace
http://emotion-research.net/earl/<version-without-dots>/<domain>.

Some examples follow.

  • earl-aibolabels-0.4.0.xsd – only the aibo category labels, no dimensions or appraisals
<xsd:schema targetNamespace="http://emotion-research.net/earl/040/aibolabels"
        xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">
  <xsd:include schemaLocation="earl-base-0.4.0.xsd"/>
  <xsd:include schemaLocation="earl-categories-aibo.xsd"/>
  <xsd:include schemaLocation="earl-dimensions-none.xsd"/>
  <xsd:include schemaLocation="earl-appraisals-none.xsd"/>
</xsd:schema>
  • earl-defaultdimensions-0.4.0.xsd – only the three default dimensions, no categories or appraisals
<xsd:schema targetNamespace="http://emotion-research.net/earl/040/defaultdimensions"
  xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">
  <xsd:include schemaLocation="earl-base-0.4.0.xsd"/>
  <xsd:include schemaLocation="earl-categories-none.xsd"/>
  <xsd:include schemaLocation="earl-dimensions-default.xsd"/>
  <xsd:include schemaLocation="earl-appraisals-none.xsd"/>
</xsd:schema>

 

 

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